Prof. Ben Anderson tentang Suharto

Wawancara Radio Nederland Siaran Indonesia , 2 September 2005

Hari Jum’at 30 September mendatang, tepat 40 tahun lalu terjadi peristiwa G30S yang mengubah sejarah Indonesia. Profesor Benedict Anderson guru besar emeritus pada Cornell University di Ithaca, Amerika Serikat adalah salah satu pengarang apa yang disebut Cornell Paper atau Makalah Cornell, yaitu risalah pertama yang meragukan versi Soeharto terhadap peristiwa yang dikenal sebagai G30S/PKI itu. Apa sebenarnya Cornell Paper itu dan penemuan-penemuan lebih lanjut apa yang didapatkan oleh Profesor Ben Anderson?

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“Experience has shown that it is so easy for people to be branded, accused, detained and tortured, until they are forced to confess to what they never even did.”
Syed Husin Ali

by: Wim F. Wertheim

On 23 September 1990, at the invitation of Indonesians staying in the Netherlands, I read a lecture in Amsterdam with the title: Sejarah tahun 65 yang tersembunyi. 1) In that lecture I called on those present seriously to study the 1965 events, as well as to reconstruct the history of the PKI preceding those events, in order to prove that the PKI had been a social force worthy of being remembered with pride (PKI merupakan kekuatan yang patut dibanggakan). It was a period when, owing to the revelations of the American journalist Kathy Kadane, in Indonesia interest in the true history of 1965 had been awakened anew. To my great surprise, in 1994 I received from M.R. Siregar, who had been present at my lecture, a copy of the first edition of his highly important book on the postwar history of PKI, which has, in revised form, now been published both in Europe and in Indonesia under the title Tragedi Manusia dan Kemanusiaan: Kasus Indonesia – Sebuah Holokaus Yang Diterima Sesudah Perang Dunia Kedua (2nd ed. Tapol, 1995; 3rd ed. Progres, 1996) 2).

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Tentang Matinya Para jendral


Tentang Matinya Para Jendral

Ben Anderson

Orang sering menjadi terkesima ketika membongkar-bongkar gudang yang bertimbun dan berdebu. Sementara iseng membolak-balik ratusan halaman fotokopi rekaman stenografis dari sidang pengadilan Letkol AURI Atmodjo di depan Mahmilub, saya temukan dokumen-dokumen yang saya terjemahkan di bawah ini, yang aslinya merupakan lampiran-lampiran pada berkas sidang pengadilan itu.

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“How Did the Generals Die?”

“How Did the Generals Die?”

Excerpts from: Dr. Ben Anderson (Cornell University), “How Did the Generals Die?,” Originally published in the journal ” Indonesia,” April 1987 issue.

Surprises often come to light when one rummages through dusty, crowded attics. In the course of casually rummaging through the hundreds of photocopies pages of the stenographic record of Air Force Lieutenant-Colonel Heru Atmodjo’s trial before the judges of the Extraordinary Military Tribunal (Mahmilub), I came across the documents translated below [not reproduced here], which in their original form were included as appendices to the trial record. They consist of the reports composed by the team of five experts in forensic medicine who examined the bodies of the six generals (Yani, Suprapto, Parman, Sutojo, Harjono, and Pandjaitan) and lone, young lieutenant (Tendean) killed on the early morning of October 1, 1965. Their sober accounts offer the most exact, objective description of how these seven died that we will ever have. In view of the longstanding controversy on the matter, and the widely differing reports offered to the public in newspapers and magazines, it seemed to me worth translating them in full for the scholarly community.

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US and the Overthrow of Sukarno

This article is from Pacific Affairs, 58, Summer 1985, pages 239-264. Peter Dale Scott is a professor of English at the University of California in Berkeley, and a member of the advisory board at Public Information Research.

The United States and the Overthrow of Sukarno, 1965-1967

Peter Dale Scott

In this short paper on a huge and vexed subject, I discuss the U.S. involvement in the bloody overthrow of Indonesia’s President Sukarno, 1965-67. The whole story of that ill-understood period would transcend even the fullest possible written analysis. Much of what happened can never be documented; and of the documentation that survives, much is both controversial and unverifiable. The slaughter of Sukarno’s left-wing allies was a product of widespread paranoia as well as of conspiratorial policy, and represents a tragedy beyond the intentions of any single group or coalition. Nor is it suggested that in 1965 the only provocations and violence came from the right-wing Indonesian military, their contacts in the United States, or (also important, but barely touched on here) their mutual contacts in British, German and Japanese intelligence. And yet, after all this has been said, the complex and ambiguous story of the Indonesian bloodbath is also in essence simpler and easier to believe than the public version inspired by President Suharto and U.S. government sources. Their problematic claim is that in the so-called Gestapu (Gerakan September Tigahpuluh) coup attempt of September 30, 1965 (when six senior army generals were murdered), the left attacked the right, leading to a restoration of power, and punitive purge of the left, by the center.1 This article argues instead that, by inducing, or at a minimum helping to induce, the Gestapu “coup,” the right in the Indonesian Army eliminated its rivals at the army’s center, thus paving the way to a long-planned elimination of the civilian left, and eventually to the establishment of a military dictatorship.2 Gestapu, in other words, was only the first phase of a three-phase right-wing coup — one which had been both publicly encouraged and secretly assisted by U.S. spokesmen and officials.3

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Di bawah ini adalah beberapa catatan ringkas dari saya, sekitar kejadian dan peristiwa baik yang saya alami maupun saya ketahui sekitar gerakan G.30S/PKI yang terjadi pada tanggal 1 Oktober 1965. Singkatnya secara kronologis dan numerik dapat saya tuliskan disini sbb.:

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The Indonesian Massacres and the CIA

The Indonesian Massacres and the CIA
by Ralph McGehee
Covert Action Quarterly, Fall 1990

In my original article ( The Nation, April 11, 1981) I tried to explain, through the constraints of the secrecy agreement and the deletions by the CIA’s review board, one aspect of the Agency’s successful effort to manipulate events in Indonesia in late 1965 and early 1966. The article was based on a classified CIA study of which I was custodian while working in the International Communism Branch of the CIA’s Counterintelligence Staff. The Nation joined with me in an unsuccessful lawsuit by the ACLU to gain release of the deleted portions of the article. The Agency claims it cannot delete unclassified lies or speculations. By heavily censoring my article, it effectively admitted to an Agency role in the peration.

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GESTAPU: The CIA’s “Track Two” in Indonesia*

GESTAPU: The CIA’s “Track Two” in Indonesia*

[written in 1976]

“Track Two” was the name given to a CIA covert operation undertaken in
Chile in the fall of 1970 at the direction of President Nixon. Its purpose was to use all possible means to prevent Allende from assuming the presidency. Knowledge of Track Two was very tightly held. The State Department, the Defense Department, the American Ambassador in Chile, and the Forty Committee were not informed. Track Two was partially responsible for the murder of General Schneider, the Chilean Army Chief of Staff who opposed efforts of other military officers to stage a coup. Track Two failed in its objective in 1970. Other analogies to the Indonesian events are theGulf of Tonkin incident and the Reichstag fire.

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